The Losino horse, (Pony sp.), Losino by Mason, has the name from the area
where is bred, the Losa valley, in the north of Burgos (Spain). It is the only
original horse from the region of Castilla Leon and is historically and
geographically related to other original breeds from the Cantabrian-Pyrinean
branch: "Garrano Portugués", Faco Gallego, Asturcón, Navarro Horse,
Pottoca Vasco and the Merens Horse.
horse was very important in the history, during the Middle Ages had an important
participation in the Reconquest of Spain and later in the colonization of
America. The Losino breed kept its population for years until 1950 but later
suffered a drop to 86 heads leaving only 30 horses left. In this year due to the
difficult situation, a new project to recover the Losino breed started in
Pancorbo (Burgos), the first Center of development for the Losino horse. The government recognized
the importance of this situation, started a number of actions to improve the
Losino situation (decree-law, April 1995) and similar action was taken by the
local government by starting the first Stud Book for the Losino horse (October
The objective of this study is to assess the current situation of the
Losino breed and the development of the different needs to put in place the
right program for the conservation of the breed.
ethnologic characterization of the Losino breed we took zoometric samples from a
population of 75 horses out of two different nuclei (Pancorbo and Quincoces)
both located in the province of Burgos. The Analysis of the zoometric
measurements shows the we are facing a bigger animal than similar ponies from
the north of the Iberian Peninsula, like in height, diameter, etc, with special
similarity to normal riding horses.
The inherited zoometric measures are from 0.36 for the shaft's perimeter
to 0.94 for the croup height. The mayor genetic correlations are related to the
body length, height and volume, showing tendency in the breed's proportion.
genetic characterization of the breed, we have computerized all data from each
of the animals included in the book. The GCI has a value of 2.03 and the blood
correlation is 1.4 %. Since this breed is giving the first steps in their
recovery, we only have 4 known generations, but we observed that the degree of
completeness is suffering a decrease when we get closer to the beginning.
The genetic markers studies have contributed to the genetic
characterization (Biochemist Polymorphism and DNA microsatellites). To calculate
the genetic intrapopulation variability between two different breed nuclei of
the Losino horse (Pancorbo and Quincoces), we estimated the average
Heterocigosity index, with a value of 0.412 for both nuclei of the 10 Loci of
biochemical polymorphism, and 0.733 for the 10 microsatellites, with a Wright
index of 0.025. With this result we can confirm that the Losino Horse has a
medium-high genetic variability. This has been achieved due to the effort made
in the Pancorbo area by the conservation program which was adjusted to the
breed's standard already described and also because of the croosbreeding with
PRE, Arabic and Postier-Breton horses. The contribution of the Losino horse in
the colonization of America is reflected in the proximity with other breeds like
the Paso Fino, Quarter mile or the Chilote horse.
After more deep
studies, we have found that there are two different
nuclei in the same geographic zone, one is from the "high areas"
(Pancorbo) and the other from the Rural areas (Quincoces) in the region of
Castilla with genotypical and phenotypical differences. With all this
information the Losino horse from the Pancorbo area has arised from a wild
habitat in the mountains of Burgos and it could be one of the most ancient
horses from the Spanish peninsula, differentiating from the Cantabric breeds and
the breeds from the south of Spain. The Quincoces nuclei is more related to the
horse breeds of the North of Spain.